Yamaguchi University in Japan use Simpleware as part of their biomechanics research and studies of spinal injuries. 3D modeling and simulation enables detailed analysis of potential clinical solutions. In this study, adult brachial plexus injuries are examined using a complex 3D Finite Element model (FEM) of the spine, dura mater, roots, and the brachial plexus. The authors looked at the mechanism of injury for the brachial plexus, particularly for stress and strain distribution, and how useful the model is for other applications.
Simpleware ScanIP was used to generate a 3D FEM using the dura mater, vertebrae, and intervertebral disc from CT and MRI images provided by the Visible Human Project (U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA). The rib bones and costicartilage were constructed as the thoracic cage due to its importance in studying the motion properties of the spine. The model was also built to look at the scapula, clavicle, and humerus in relation to motion of the upper limn. As there were no images available of the brachial plexus, parts were built into the model based on research data.
Simulation of lateroflexion of the spine