Simpleware ScanIP was used to generate a 3D FEM using the dura mater, vertebrae, and intervertebral disc from CT and MRI images provided by the Visible Human Project (U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA). The rib bones and costicartilage were constructed as the thoracic cage due to its importance in studying the motion properties of the spine. The model was also built to look at the scapula, clavicle, and humerus in relation to motion of the upper limn. As there were no images available of the brachial plexus, parts were built into the model based on research data.
Simulation of lateroflexion of the spine