Human vision remains important, however, machine vision which is requiring high resolution image sensor connectivity is taking over. Such requirement is driving the trend towards up to 600-megapixel image sensors with artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities for additional use cases in various markets from mobile to automotive to internet-of-things (IoT). Mobile applications, mainly high-end smartphones, already deploy multiple high-resolution image sensors that require significantly higher bandwidth. Vision systems in automotive applications, such as ADAS and in-vehicle infotainment, are growing in complexity combining up to 30 image sensors with other sensing technologies like lidar, and radar. Additionally, automotive applications must meet all the stringent automotive functional safety, quality, reliability, and security standards as well as meet target Automotive Safety Integrity Levels (ASILs). Image sensors are also deployed in AI-enabled IoT applications with face recognition capabilities.
Embedded display innovations continue to be driven by mobile and automotive markets. Higher resolutions, 120 Hz refresh rate and foldable displays are already being deployed. Less complex IoT applications are also moving away from legacy display interfaces and leveraging the advantages of new standard camera and display interfaces.
Camera and display system-on-chips (SoCs) need interface technologies that allow efficient transmission of high volumes of data at a high rate. While MIPI camera and display interfaces are the de facto standard for mobile products, the industry is seeing their advantages in automotive, IoT and other emerging camera and display applications.
This article highlights the unique features of the MIPI CSI-2, DSI/DSI-2, D-PHY, and C-PHY interfaces, and briefly describes how designers can integrate the interfaces in their SoC designs using compliant MIPI IP.