3D Anatomical Models

What are 3D anatomical models?

3D anatomical models provide a digital representation of some or all the anatomies in the human body. These models are typically derived from 3D scan data (CT or MRI) or serial sectioning images and are leveraged in two distinct industries. Patient-specific models come from clinical scans of an individual who requires medical treatment. The 3D models derived from their scans provide valuable insight for treatment or surgical planning and help to achieve the best outcomes for the patient. 3D anatomical models are also frequently useful in R&D product development, specifically with products that interface with the human body. Here, generic models that represent an average anatomy or a typical population are used to perform in-silico predictions of the product's performance, efficiency, safety, etc.

Patient-specific 3D Anatomical Models

 

What problems do patient-specific 3D anatomical models solve?

Accurate digital representations of patient anatomy from 3D imaging provide valuable insight into the nuances of the patient’s pathologies. From these models, clinicians can explore complex patient cases without the need for invasive exploratory surgery. Effective treatment plans can be designed in a virtual environment and evaluated before deployment. Implants and other medical devices can be selected and positioned within the anatomy to simulate intended outcomes. Development of surgical guides and bespoke implants is also possible with 3D anatomical models and can help to reduce surgical complexity, time, and therefore risk, as well as achieve better outcomes for the patient.

How do patient-specific 3D anatomical models work?

Patient-specific models are obtained from clinical 3D image data such as MRI and CT scans, which are frequently leveraged in a clinical setting to detect and monitor pathologies within a patient’s body. The type of scan performed is dependent on the anatomies of interest. Once acquired, the scan can be imported into a 3D image processing software solution like Synopsys Simpleware to be converted into a 3D model. This involves the application of various filters and segmentation strategies to identify and label the regions of interest with high accuracy. Once the model is developed it can be explored in 3D, with various measurements, statistics, and analysis available to gain an all-encompassing view of the patient’s anatomy. Virtual adjustments representing surgical cuts can be performed and digital models of implants can be introduced to plan and predict outcomes from treatment.

About Synopsys patient-specific 3D anatomical models

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Support of AI-driven automated segmentation solutions, including the Simpleware Auto Segmenter modules, drastically reduces processing times for the development of orthopedic and cardiology models, freeing up clinician time for decision-making tasks. Simpleware software’s CE Marked and FDA 510(k)-cleared medical edition also facilitates easy deployment of patient-specific modeling solutions into clinical workflows. The software is also FDA 510(k)-cleared for exporting to 3D medical printing. Consultancy services are available to develop tailored solutions and automation or to take the model generation workload away from your team and into the hands of our image-processing experts.

Where does Synopsys Simpleware fit into the patient-specific 3D anatomical modelling workflow?

Synopsys Simpleware provides an extensive software solution for the creation and manipulation of 3D anatomical models from image data. As a licensable product, the software offers 3D image segmentation, visualization, and analysis tools to support clinical exploration, planning and prediction workflows. In many cases, Simpleware provides a start-to-finish solution for patient-specific anatomical modeling but can also feed directly into subsequent patient-specific implant design, point of care 3D printing, or even numerical simulation.

Support of AI-driven automated segmentation solutions, including the Simpleware Auto Segmenter modules, drastically reduces processing times for the development of orthopedic and cardiology models, freeing-up clinician time for decision-making tasks. Simpleware software’s CE Marked and FDA 510(k)-cleared medical edition also facilitates easy deployment of patient-specific modeling solutions into clinical workflows. Consultancy services are available to develop tailored solutions and automation or to take the model generation workload away from your team and into the hands of our image-processing experts.

Going beyond patient-specific 3D anatomical models

Creating anatomical models with Synopsys Simpleware facilitates a variety of analysis, planning, and prediction workflows. Once a the model has been produced, there are various options available to users, such as:

  • Combining anatomical data with CAD-designed implants for virtual testing of fit and performance as well as planning of necessary surgical cuts
  • Generating surface meshes for export to 3D printing and Computer-Aided Design workflows – Simpleware Design Link offers a live link for transferring device designs and anatomical models to and from SOLIDWORKS for design of bespoke implants and guides
  • Creating volume meshes for Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of real-world performance

How are patient-specific 3D anatomical models being applied to real-world cases?

Segmentation of aortic dissection | Synopsys

Patient-specific 3D anatomical models help design customized cutting guides for orthopedic surgery

Clinicians at Corin Group use Simpleware software to understand the individual motion profile of patients before hip surgery. The software is used to process patient-specific CT data, including segmentation and landmarking, and uses scripting to automate the large number of cases being processed. Implant geometries are then imported and suitably positioned, before the development of cutting guides which are subsequently 3D printed. The guides are used during surgery to ensure optimal placement of cuts and holes for implant attachment.

An outline of the workflow is as follows:

1. 3D image data of patient bones acquired using CT scanning

2. Files imported to Simpleware software for processing and positioning of an implant

3. Simpleware scripting used to automate repetitive processes

4. Cutting guides are designed using the patient-specific anatomical models

5. 3D printing is used to manufacture the guides used during surgery

3D Anatomical Models for R&D

 

What are 3D anatomical models?

3D anatomical models provide a digital representation of some or all the anatomies in the human body. These models are typically derived from 3D scan data (CT or MRI) or serial sectioning images and are leveraged in two distinct industries. Patient-specific models come from clinical scans of an individual who requires medical treatment. The 3D models derived from their scans provide valuable insight for treatment or surgical planning and help to achieve the best outcomes for the patient. 3D anatomical models are also frequently useful in R&D product development, specifically with products that interface with the human body. Here, generic models that represent an average anatomy or a typical population are used to perform in-silico predictions of the product's performance, efficiency, safety, etc.

How do 3D anatomical models for R&D work?

For many applications, a range of human body models has already been developed which provide an almost off-the-shelf solution to product developments. Some level of customization is built into these models as the extent, anatomy selection, export formats and relevant export parameters (i.e. mesh density) can be controlled. Those looking for human body model solutions should explore these models first as a more economical option. For very anatomy-specific cases or those with distinct requirements, human body models may need to be custom made from available or specifically acquired scan data. Providing a clear definition of the required geometry and model parameters is necessary to ensure a result that is fit-for-purpose.

3D anatomical models can be provided in a range of different formats depending on the intended use. Models used to inform CAD design work can be shared in a CAD-friendly NURBS format, while models intended for physics-based simulation are typically delivered as a volumetric mesh in formats specific to the solvers being used. NURBS formats can also be used to facilitate the integration of CAD data i.e. a designed product, before generating a volumetric mesh in a third-party meshing software. Triangulated surface formats can also be leveraged for 3D printing where physical replicas of the anatomy can then be produced for use as teaching aids or to assist medical discussions.

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When and where do 3D anatomical models fit in the product portfolio?

Synopsys offers an extensive library of human body models that can be tailored to specific requirements. This includes everything from highly detailed head models, from MRI and CT data to full-body populations covering a variety of ages and BMIs. In addition to our existing data, we can also source high-quality scans that provide the best input to generate bespoke anatomical models to your requirements.

 3D anatomical models are currently used within various applications using Synopsys Simpleware products, as well as collaborations with the Optical Solutions Group. Example uses include by medical researchers and device companies designing patient-specific implants, and by sports companies designing footwear for individual customers. Human head models are also used for research involving Synopsys LightTools for virtual prototyping and precision illumination applications.

Going beyond 3D anatomical models for R&D

3D anatomical models designed for R&D can be used as a foundation for carrying out various workflows, for example:

  • Combining CAD designs of products with a human model. These could be electronic devices, safety gear, medical devices, wearables, and clothing, or any other product that interfaces with the human body
  • Simulating the effect of the product on the human body. This could be a structural simulation such as an impact in the case of safety gear design, or an electromagnetic simulation in the case of electronics. Optical simulations are also possible for example for pulse oximetry within smartwatches.
  • Exporting to 3D printing and Additive Manufacturing, processes can be used to create physical anatomy replicas useful for physical prototyping and experimentation.

How are 3D anatomical models for R&D being applied to real-world cases?

Segmentation of aortic dissection | Synopsys

Human head models from image data offer many simulation possibilities

City College of New York (CCNY) research transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as an aid to developing medical devices for various neurology treatments. The Synopsys Simpleware team worked with them to develop a highly detailed head model from scan data, which can be adapted to different applications, for example, CAD, FEA, or 3D printing. The accuracy of the model and its ability to be adapted depending on a task makes it a valuable resource for anyone studying the head and brain. This head model is available as part of the Simpleware range of human body models for R&D.