Automobiles and other road vehicles such as trucks and buses have always been one of the most demanding applications for mechanical and electrical design. Systems must operate properly over a wide range of environmental conditions, facing extremes of temperature, humidity, sunlight, dirt, vibration and more. User expectations of reliability and availability mandate safety-critical design practices. The advent of self-driving vehicles and the possibility of hacking have added major security concerns to the mix. Accordingly, the electronic systems in today's automobiles contain some of the most complex chips in the world, using advanced technologies to help ensure robustness and long life.