Overview of Technology Trends and 22nm Technology Node
The ongoing technology scaling provides improved area, cost, speed, leakage, and power. We look at the technology innovations that are necessary to go from the current 32nm node to the next (22nm) node and beyond. For the last 40 years, semiconductor industry has been driven by planar MOSFETs, which are expected to be still manufactured at 22nm node, but will be initially complemented, and eventually overtaken by alternative transistor architectures. We review the alternative transistor architectures and the differences in their inherent variability mechanisms. Special attention is devoted to the analysis of performance boosting high-k/metal gate and stress engineering technologies and how they can be used to leverage either speed or leakage or both. In addition to conventional layout scaling that doubles transistor density for each subsequent technology node, 3D chip integration using through-silicon vias (TSV) is expected to be in high volume production within the next two years. We present TSV process flow and TSV impact on the adjacent circuit.
Dr. Victor Moroz, Synopsys