Interconnect simulation tools address the electrical and reliability performance of interconnect structures. Raphael is an industry standard 2D and 3D field solver that extracts the resistance, capacitance and inductance of detailed interconnect structures and SRAM cells. StarRC Custom’s Rapid3D technology is a fast field solver which uses an efficient random walk algorithm to extract the capacitance of critical nets on a full chip. Rapid3D extraction is embedded inside StarRC Custom. Sentaurus Interconnect is a reliability simulator which computes the mechanical stress in interconnect structures resulting from thermal processing and externally applied forces.